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ESL Student Blog
Language points (vocabulary, grammar, pronunciaton) that are worth noticing for ESL students around the world.

Sunday, August 26, 2012

Multi-word Expressions: Plural Binomials

Binomials are phrases consisting of two words of the same form connected by a conjunction (and, but, or) or a preposition (in, to, by).

Binomials are a sub-group of collocations, words that naturally go together:
 
ladies and gentlemen
arts and crafts

on and off

lost and found
wait and see
side by side
face to face
dead or alive
hand in hand
 
The word order in binomials is irreversible:
 
fruit and vegetables (not *’vegetables and fruit’)
 
The form of the words making up a binomial is fixed as well - singular nouns can’t be changed into plural and vice versa.
 
Here are some binomials consisting of nouns that are both plural:
 
boys and girls
hugs and kisses

pots and pans

peas and carrots
aches and pains
signs and symptoms
vitamins and supplements
ghosts and goblins
cuts and scrapes

rules and regulations

goods and services

stars and stripes (American flag)
 
Some binomials are idiomatic:
 
dos and don’ts - things you must and mustn’t do in a particular situation
 
This workshop will focus on the dos and don’ts of a job interview.
 
heads or tails - said when spinning a coin (the tails side doesn’t have the picture of a person) to decide a choice
 
Let’s flip the coin to see who will ride in the front seat of the car. Heads or tails, what will you choose?
 
rags to riches - from being poor to becoming rich
 
She went from rags to riches when she married the oil tycoon.
 
pros and cons - the advantages and disadvantages of something
 
Home schooling children has its pros and cons.
 
ups and downs - successes and failures
 
I had my ups and downs when I was trying to lose weight.
 
the ins and outs - all the details needed to make a decision in a difficult situation
 
I need some financial advice to learn the ins and outs of this mortgage program.
 
the rights and wrongs - fair and unfair aspects of something
 
They discussed the rights and wrongs of the military action in the region.
 
the nuts and bolts - basic practical details
 
Let’s deal with the nuts and bolts of the project first.
 
facts and figures - exact information
 
Before we make a decision, we need some more facts and figures.
 
bits and pieces - small objects and items
 
My son always has lots of bits and pieces in his jacket pockets.
 
pins and needles - slight sharp pains in a part of the body that stayed in an uncomfortable position for too long
 
I had pins and needles in my hands after carrying heavy shopping bags.
 
be on pins and needles - wait for something nervously or anxiously
 
I was on pins and needles all morning waiting for the phone call from my boss.
 
the birds and the bees - basic facts about sex and pregnancy as explained to children
 
“Mommy, where did I come from?”
“Let me tell you about the birds and the bees.”
POSTED BY Olga Galperin AT 11:53 PM   0 Comments  Add Comment

Monday, August 06, 2012

Olympics: Tears of Joy and Sorrow

It’s often hard to contain emotions watching the top athletes of the world compete at the Olympics. From joy and excitement, to frustration and disappointment, and from hope to admiration, the Games draw the entire gamut of emotions - so often expressed through tears.
 
How do you react to the athletes’ victories and upsets? Medal award ceremonies and cheating accusations? Do the Games events make you tear up (have your eyes fill with tears)?
 
Here are some word combinations that are often used with the word ‘tear’(associated with crying):
 
shed tears (=cry)
 
She shed tears after failing to qualify for the semi-finals.
 
(be) in tears (=crying)
 
He was retiring from the sport and was in tears after the match.
 
tears of joy/disappointment/sorrow/relief/despair
 
Tears of relief streamed down her face after she crossed the finish line.
 
have tears in one’s eyes
 
Many spectators had tears in their eyes as they watched the closing ceremony.
 
leave someone in tears (cause someone to cry)
 
The score wasn’t enough to take over the first place, and the result left her in tears.
 
be moved to tears (become very emotional, about going to cry)
 
I was moved to tears by the athlete’s courage. The runner refused to drop out of the race despite her injury.
 
hold back/fight back/choke back tears (try hard not to cry, suppress tears)
 
She fought back tears as the national anthem was played.
 
burst/break into tears, also break down in tears (start crying suddenly)
 
She broke into tears after her disappointing finish in the event.
 
wipe away tears (remove by rubbing with a cloth, tissue, fingers etc.)
 
He was wiping away the tears and apologizing for his poor performance.
POSTED BY Olga Galperin AT 1:44 AM   1 Comments  Add Comment



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